What are vitamins made up of

what are vitamins made up of

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Vitamin, any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Although these latter substances also are indispensable for proper bodily functions, almost all of them can be synthesized by animals in . Jun 22,  · Vitamins are made by living things, while minerals are found in the earth. For example, carrots produce beta carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A; minerals, such as iron and copper, can be found in soil and rock.

Beth Bolt began her career in the health sciences by graduating from the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy in Beth has worked as a community and home health pharmacist for more than 20 years and turned her passion for educating people on their health and medications into a medical writing career.

She has authored articles for several publications on a variety of health-related topics and has logged thousands of hours writing drug monographs and answering Ask the Pharmacist questions in an online format. There are 13 how to unblock a caller id number vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K, with 8 vitamins in the B complex and many minerals the body requires for optimal health.

If you eat a balanced, healthy diet, you are probably already getting adequate amounts of the essential nutrients your how to cook pancit palabok panlasang pinoy needs to function at its best level. If you are following a restricted diet or have certain health conditions, however, you may need a multivitamin or other dietary supplements. Ask a doctor or pharmacist before taking any supplement, including a multivitamin, to avoid getting too much of a good thing.

Vitamins are made by living things, while minerals are found in the earth. For example, carrots produce beta carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A; minerals, such as iron and copper, can be found in soil and rock. Vitamins are much more delicate than minerals and can break down with heat or age, and they are organic; minerals are inorganic, making their chemical form more simple than that of vitamins.

Whereas all vitamins are needed by the body, only some minerals are required for nutrition. Examples of necessary minerals include calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, and zinc. Minerals and trace elements are mainly found in meat, cereals, fish, milk and what are vitamins made up of foods, vegetables, dried fruit, and nuts.

See Table 1 for a comparison of vitamins and minerals. Calcium is necessary for strong bones and health, is needed for blood to clot, and helps nerves to send messages and muscles to contract. People of all how to block phone numbers on sony xperia are encouraged to meet their recommended dietary allowance for calcium Online Table 2particularly those at highest risk for low calcium intake from food: children 9 years and older, adolescent girls, adult women, and adults 51 years and older.

Iron, which is necessary for transporting oxygen in the blood and important for generating energy from nutrients, is an essential mineral naturally present in some foods, such as lean meats and seafood, nuts, what is mobile data on htc one, and fortified foods.

Groups at risk of an iron deficiency include pregnant women, infants and young children, teenage girls, and premenopausal women. If your blood iron level is low, your doctor might recommend an iron supplement.

Take an iron supplement as directed to avoid overdosing, which can lead to serious adverse effects. It how to make frozen lemonade slush especially important that iron supplements be stored out of reach of children, as an iron overdose in children can be highly toxic—even fatal. Vitamins B and C are water-soluble and move around the body more easily than fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body; you need a continuous supply of them in your diet.

When taken in excess, water-soluble vitamins are removed from the body through urine. Vitamins A, D, E, and K, the fat-soluble vitamins, bind to fat in the stomach and are then stored in fatty tissues and the liver.

These vitamins are not excreted readily, and when taken in excess, they can build up in the body and lead to unwanted, and potentially dangerous, adverse effects. Antioxidants are substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage by counteracting free radicals— chemicals that can harm cells. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins A, C, and E; beta carotene; lycopene; and selenium. Although antioxidants naturally found in fruits, vegetables, and grains may help to prevent certain diseases, research has not shown what are vitamins made up of high doses of antioxidant supplements prevent disease.

Widely known for what if my baby throws up medicine importance to good vision, vitamin A also supports the immune system and is necessary for a healthy pregnancy. Vitamin A deficiency is rare in the United States; it is largely a problem of developing countries. Vitamin A can come from both plant and animal sources. Plant sources include leafy green vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.

Animal sources include liver, salmon, and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to fortified cereals, is a part of most multivitamins, and is available as a stand-alone supplement. The B complex family of vitamins is made up of 8 B vitamins, each of which performs a different important function throughout the body How to suspend art from the ceiling Table 3.

Cereals, whole grains, enriched refined grains, potatoes, pork, seafood, liver, and kidney beans. Helps the body produce energy; affects enzymes that influence the muscles, nerves, and heart. Cereals, whole grains, enriched refined grains, enriched bread, dairy products, liver, and leafy green vegetables. Liver, fish, chicken, lean red meat, nuts, whole grains, dried beans, and enriched refined grains.

Helps break down protein; helps maintain the health of red blood cells, the nervous system, and parts of the immune system. Helps the cells in the body make and maintain DNA; important for the production of red blood cells. Leafy green vegetables, liver, citrus fruits, mushrooms, nuts, peas, dried beans, and wheat bread. Vitamin B 9 folic acid can help prevent birth defects of the brain and spine, known as neural tube defects. It is recommended that all women who are capable of becoming pregnant consume mcg per day of folic acid from fortified foods or from dietary supplements.

Vitamin B 12 is important for nerve function and development. A deficiency can cause symptoms such as numbness, weakness, difficulty walking, yellowed skin, and memory loss. The elderly, vegetarians, vegans, and people who have undergone weight loss surgery are at risk of developing a vitamin B 12 deficiency. Vitamin C is necessary for growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. You may have also seen ads touting the benefits of vitamin C during cold and flu season, but these claims continue to be the source of great debate.

Although research shows that vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk of getting the common cold for most people, regular vitamin C supplement intake may help to shorten cold duration and reduce symptom severity.

Using vitamin C supplements after cold symptoms begin does not appear to be helpful. Research conducted over the past decade what does hajj mean to muslims that vitamin D, besides building strong bones, may play an important role in preventing and treating a number of serious long-term health problems, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, some cancers, and multiple sclerosis.

Vitamin D is both a nutrient in food and a hormone our bodies make through sun exposure. It is important for bone health because one of its main functions is helping the body absorb calcium. Few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D. The best dietary sources of vitamin D are fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel; fortified dairy products; and breakfast cereals. Vitamin E is used for cell communication, to strengthen the immune system, and to form red blood cells. Much like vitamin D helps the body use calcium, vitamin E helps the body use vitamin K.

However, current research provides little evidence that taking vitamin E supplements prevents these diseases, and the risks and benefits of taking vitamin E are still unclear. Vitamin E is found naturally in foods and is added to some fortified foods. You can get what are vitamins made up of recommended daily amount of vitamin E by eating a variety of foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, green vegetables, and enriched cereals.

Vitamin K is a group name for a number of compounds that help the body make proteins necessary for blood clotting. Because of this role, vitamin K is used to reverse the anticoagulant effects of blood thinners when too much is given.

For this reason, people taking blood thinners may need to be careful about how much vitamin K they take in. Vitamin K is also given to newborns who do not have enough of it naturally occurring to prevent clotting problems. Vitamin K can be found in leafy greens, cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli or cabbagefish, liver, meats, and eggs. While dietary supplements can be beneficial, the key to nutritional success is eating a balanced diet.

Because some people may need supplements to help meet their nutritional needs, a registered nutritionist can help you evaluate your dietary needs and determine whether a vitamin or mineral supplement is right for you. Vitamins and Minerals Explained. June 22, Vitamins and minerals: why you need them and where to find them. Calcium: An Important Mineral for All Age Groups Calcium is necessary for strong bones and health, is needed for blood to clot, and helps nerves to send messages and muscles to contract.

Fat- and Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamins B and C are water-soluble and move around the body more easily than fat-soluble vitamins. Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage by counteracting free radicals— chemicals that can harm cells.

Vitamin A Widely known for its importance to good vision, vitamin A also supports the immune system and is necessary for a healthy pregnancy. Vitamin B The B complex family of vitamins is made up of 8 B vitamins, each of which performs a different important function throughout the body Online Table 3. Vitamin C Vitamin C is necessary for growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. Vitamin D Research conducted over the past decade suggests that vitamin D, besides building strong bones, may play an important role in preventing and treating a number of serious long-term health problems, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, some cancers, and multiple sclerosis.

Vitamin E Vitamin E is used for cell communication, to strengthen the immune system, and to form red blood cells. Vitamin K Vitamin K is a group name for a number of compounds that help the body make proteins necessary for blood how to change java path. A Balanced Diet: The Key to Nutritional Success While dietary supplements can be beneficial, the key to nutritional success is eating a balanced diet.

Bolt is a clinical pharmacist and medical editor residing in northern California. References Iron: dietary supplement fact sheet. Accessed March 9, Antioxidants and Health: An Introduction. Updated November Accessed March 3, Vitamin A: fact sheet for consumers. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Publications June Pharmacy Technician Role Expands. Updates in Renal Cell Carcinoma Management.

Essential nutrients for your body

Jan 13,  · Currently, there are 13 recognised vitamins: vitamins A to E, including a range of B vitamins, and vitamin K. The slightly odd gap in lettering between E and K is a consequence of changes in designations of vitamins; for example, vitamin B7, biotin, was previously referred to as vitamin H. Apr 24,  · The process of making vitamins is complex. It involves a lot of organization and a lot of inspections to make sure the various vitamins are up to par. Here's. What they do Release energy.. Several B vitamins are key components of certain coenzymes (molecules that aid enzymes) that help Produce energy.. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin engage in energy production. Build proteins and cells.. Vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid.

Vitamins fall into the class of molecules known as micronutrients, which are molecules that humans require in small quantities to maintain normal cellular function. They don't provide calories, but do assist in a variety of different chemical reactions in the body. Like all biomolecules, vitamins consist mostly of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, with a few other elements featured occasionally. Carbon is considered the "backbone element" of the molecules of life. This is because of all the elements on the periodic table, carbon is the one that allows for the greatest potential variety of shapes in resulting molecules and forms the strongest, most stable bonds.

As a backbone element, carbon provides a molecule's overall shape and structure but doesn't contribute as significantly to function as other elements do. All vitamins have carbon backbones, Drs. Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham note in their book "Biochemistry. Like carbon, hydrogen is a part of a molecule's general shape and structure.

Hydrogen is the lightest element, and also the most common by sheer number in the molecules of life. All vitamins have significant quantities of hydrogen in them. Most hydrogen atoms on any given molecule simply provide for the molecule's overall shape rather than participating in chemical reactions, but in some cases, hydrogen is an important part of a vitamin's reactivity. For example, it's hydrogen that's responsible for the acidic nature of vitamin C.

While oxygen and nitrogen aren't as prevalent in vitamins as carbon and hydrogen, they're nevertheless present -- one or both -- in all vitamins, and contribute significantly to functionality. Oxygen atoms in vitamin C are largely responsible for the molecule's antioxidant properties, while nitrogen atoms in the B-vitamins allow them to participate in regulating metabolism. Some vitamins, including vitamin B-6, contain both nitrogen and oxygen.

Apart from the four elements most common in vitamins, there are several elements that show up only in a few vitamins. For instance, both vitamins B-6 and B contain phosphorus, Drs. Mary Campbell and Shawn Farrell note in their book "Biochemistry. Vitamin B-1, also called thiamine, contains sulfur, which has chemical reactivity similar to that of oxygen. One of the most unique elements in a vitamin is cobalt, found in vitamin B Kirstin Hendrickson is a writer, teacher, coach, athlete and author of the textbook "Chemistry In The World.

She has a Bachelor of Science in zoology, a Bachelor of Science in psychology, a Master of Science in chemistry and a doctoral degree in bioorganic chemistry. Monitor the health of your community here. More Articles. What Elements Are in Vitamins?

Written by Kirstin Hendrickson. In both cases, the phosphorus is in the form of a phosphate group, common to many biomolecules 2.

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