The Battles of Francis Marion
This list displays the battles Francis Marion fought in alphabetically, but the battles/military engagements contain information such as where the battle was fought and who else was involved. Items on this list include Battle of Black Mingo and Siege of Fort Motte. Aug 01, · Francis Marion Facts: American Revolutionary War. On June 21, , Marion was commissioned Captain in the 2nd South Carolina Regiment under William Moultrie, with whom he served in June in the In September , the Continental Congress commissioned Marion as a Lieutenant Colonel. In the.
Francis Marion is best known for his leadership in the partisan war ofduring which he and his volunteer militia harassed British troops and the Loyalist militia in South Carolina, first disrupting the British occupation of the state and later helping to clear royal forces from a considerable area.
Once this task had been accomplished, Marion faced a new challenge: commanding his militia in a set piece battle alongside other militia and Continental troops under Major General Nathanael Greene.
Despite his lack of experience in such circumstances, Marion put his earlier experience as a Continental officer to good use and led his men effectively at the Battle of Eutaw Springs on September 8,in the last major open field battle of the War for Independence. Enlisting for service in the Cherokee War, Marion enlisted in the South Carolina militia and was commissioned first lieutenant in a company what battles did francis marion fight by another South Carolinian who would rise to prominence in the Revolution, William Moultrie.
In June Marion returned to military service when South Carolina began organizing troops in response to the outbreak of fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Marion was promoted to major in February and on June 28, while assigned to the garrison of Fort Moultrie, took part in the successful defense of Charleston against a British attack.
He continued to serve as a regular officer, earning promotion to lieutenant colonel, until the British capture of Charleston in May Shortly afterward, Marion embarked on his well known career as a partisan leader. Beginning in AprilMarion conducted joint operations with a force of Continental troops that Greene had dispatched to assist him in a campaign against How to size a pump posts.
Marion, now a brigadier general of militia, and Lee were both strict disciplinarians, skilled at the type of partisan war they had to conduct, and innovative. Before dispatching Lee to join Marion, Greene had briefly considered reinforcing Sumter with the Legion instead, but had decided that Lee and the prickly Sumter would be unlikely to get along.
Their success cut the British supply line to Charleston and forced the British to evacuate Camden. The Americans had regained control of the southern backcountry. Greene camped his army at the High Hills of Santee, leaving Marion and Lee, operating separately, to watch the British forces in how to sew by hand vicinity of Charleston.
Meanwhile, a British force that Lee estimated at men began probing deeper into the interior of South Carolina, marching along the south bank of the Santee to the south side of the Congaree River. Lee urged Greene to attack the isolated force, which was commanded by an officer newly arrived in South Carolina, Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart.
Marion was watching a second British detachment of about men that was at Eutaw Springs in mid-August. Greene marched from the High Hills on August 23 after issuing orders to his detachments and various militia units to unite with the main army. However, he did not send Marion instructions at this point, perhaps because Marion was already closer to the British than other American units.
He had in fact been extremely how did the phoenicians contribute to western culture during the last week of August, shadowing and skirmishing with British detachments between the Combahee and Edisto rivers. On September 6, Marion informed Greene that he had received the instructions. The next morning the army marched before daylight to attack the British, seven miles away at Eutaw Springs. The Continentals followed.
Unfortunately, two American deserters cost Greene the element of surprise. Four miles from the British camp Coffin saw the approaching Americans and rashly charged. While Stewart formed his troops for battle, the Americans deployed opposite the British. Using the system that Daniel Morgan had so successfully employed at Cowpens, Greene formed his army in two lines with the militia in front.
At about 9 a. The militia advanced until they came under fire, then halted and exchanged volleys with the British. Fortunately, Greene reacted quickly and hurried the two North Carolina Continental regiments forward to fill the gap in the line.
Both the heat and the enemy fire were intense. Jehu Kolb was wounded by a musket ball in his left knee. Jim Capers, a free black who had served under Marion as a drum major when the latter was a Continental officer, was acting in the same capacity at Eutaw Springs and wounded four times: two cuts on his face, a sword cut to the head, and was shot through the body, the ball passing completely through Capers and killing a drummer, Paul Ram Lee, who was standing behind him.
James Delaney, a cook who had exchanged his ladle for a musket, was also wounded. Even those who escaped injury commented on the fierceness of the fighting. This time the British, sensing victory and without orders, launched a spontaneous bayonet charge that forced Marion to order a retreat. It was probably at this time that Capers suffered the wound from a sword blow, while James McMillan was wounded in the thigh by a British bayonet.
The British had other worries. Greene, with the same impeccable sense of timing that he had shown in committing the North Carolina Continentals to replace the militia, had ordered the Virginia and Maryland Continentals to charge as soon as he saw the front line begin to give way.
The Continentals advanced, Marion shifting his retreating brigade to the right of the Virginians what elements make up fossil fuels allow them clear passage. Marion reformed his brigade while the Continentals drove back the British. Back at camp, the officers tallied their losses. According to one recorded by Captain Robert Kirkwood of the Delaware Continentals, the total losses suffered by the South Carolina militia were two killed and 27 wounded.
The casualties understate the actual losses suffered by the South Carolina militia. Henry Lee later insisted that Greene had underreported his losses, and the work done recently by Lawrence E.
Marion and his brigade distinguished themselves that day. Greene recognized that fact and was effusive in his praise. In any case, Marion did not have time either to count casualties or write lengthy reports. It made no difference, since on the night of September 9 Stewart retreated toward Charleston.
The British threat to the interior of South Carolina had been ended. Many officers with experience as partisans had difficulty working with Continental officers, as Thomas Sumter had already demonstrated, and the militia had frequently proven unreliable in set piece battles, such as that fought at Camden just over a year earlier.
Marion, however, was different. Greene, like his mentor George Washington, always harbored distrust for the militia, but Marion earned his confidence.
The reward was more hard service alongside Lee after the battle, but in choosing officers and troops to carry out a difficult and risky task, the fact that Greene turned to Marion and his militia to operate with Lee showed that Marion had convinced Greene of his own merit and that of his men.
Good morning Jim, a fine subject indeed. I really enjoyed it. On the other hand, Coffin and his dragoons spent months on duty between Charleston and the outposts. Hoping to fnd time to write that relationship up one day.
Anyway, I brought it up to point out that Coffin was not only the first British regiment to raise the alarm but also the last British regiment engaged in the battle. I try to never let opportunity go by without mentioning him. I have to admit I tended toward the romantic when younger, but reading over the years has tempered that tendency with reality.
Over the years, I have expanded my interest and knowledge about the Revolution. Thanks so much for this article. I am kin to Jehu Kolb, mentioned here. The article is very well written and informative. Hi Jim, Enjoyed your article. Thomas Ray served in the North Carolina Militia, He was wounded and his brother Hudson was killed and another brother, Charles, was captured by the British.
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Colleton, SC | Aug 30, 1781
Jun 04, · Francis Marion is best known for his leadership in the partisan war of , during which he and his volunteer militia harassed British troops and the Loyalist militia in South Carolina, first disrupting the British occupation of the state and later helping to clear royal forces from a . He also fought in a number of the early battles in the South, again under Moultrie, including the clash at Fort Sullivan in February In September , Marion was commissioned as the commander of the South Carolina Second State Regiment and in the following year, he fought under Benjamin Lincoln at the second Battle of Savannah. Marion’s victory here directly impacted the Battle of Eutaw Springs, nine days later, by depriving British horse not available to fight there on September 8. Marion maneuvered through enemy territory back to the Santee and joined Greene to command that battle’s right militia line at Eutaw Springs.
Francis Marion c. Acting with the Continental Army and South Carolina militia commissions, he was a persistent adversary of the British in their occupation of South Carolina and Charleston in and , even after the Continental Army was driven out of the state in the Battle of Camden.
Marion used irregular methods of warfare and is considered one of the fathers of modern guerrilla warfare and maneuver warfare , and is credited in the lineage of U. Army Rangers and the 75th Ranger Regiment. Marion's father Gabriel was a Huguenot who emigrated to the colonies from France before Marion began his military career shortly before his 25th birthday.
In September , the Continental Congress commissioned Marion as a lieutenant colonel. In the autumn of , he took part in the siege of Savannah , a failed Franco-American attempt to capture and recover the Georgia colonial capital city which had been previously taken by the British.
A British expedition under Henry Clinton moved into South Carolina in the early spring of and laid siege to Charleston. Marion was not captured with the rest of the garrison when Charleston fell on May 12, , because he had broken an ankle in an accident and had left the city to recuperate.
Clinton took part of the British army that had captured Charleston back to New York but a significant number stayed for operations under Lord Cornwallis in the Carolinas. After the loss in Charleston, the defeats of General Isaac Huger at the Battle of Monck's Corner and Lieutenant Colonel Abraham Buford at the Waxhaw massacre near the North Carolina border, in what is now Lancaster County , Marion organized a small unit, which at first consisted of between 20 and 70 men and was the only force then opposing the British Army in the state.
At this point, Marion was still nearly crippled from his slowly healing ankle. Gates sent Marion towards the interior to gather intelligence on the British enemy. Marion thus missed the battle, which proved to be a decisive British victory. Marion showed himself to be a singularly able leader of irregular militiamen and ruthless in his terrorizing of Loyalists. Unlike the Continental troops, Marion's Men, as they were known, served without pay, supplied their own horses, arms and often their food.
Marion rarely committed his men to frontal warfare, but repeatedly bewildered larger bodies of Loyalists or British regulars with quick surprise attacks and equally sudden withdrawal from the field. After the surrender of Charleston, the British garrisoned South Carolina with help from local Tories, except for Williamsburg, which they were never able to hold. The British made one attempt to garrison Williamsburg at the colonial village of Hilltown but were driven out by Marion at the Battle of Black Mingo.
Cornwallis observed, "Colonel Marion had so wrought the minds of the people, partly by the terror of his threats and cruelty of his punishments, and partly by the promise of plunder, that there was scarcely an inhabitant between the Santee and the Pee Dee that was not in arms against us. The British especially hated Marion and made repeated efforts to neutralize his force, but Marion's intelligence gathering was excellent and that of the British was poor, due to the overwhelming Patriot loyalty of the populace in the Williamsburg area.
Colonel Banastre Tarleton was sent to capture or kill Marion in November ; he despaired of finding the "old swamp fox", who eluded him by travelling along swamp paths. It was Tarleton who gave Marion his nom de guerre when, after unsuccessfully pursuing Marion's troops for over 26 miles through a swamp, he gave up and swore "[a]s for this damned old fox, the Devil himself could not catch him.
Marion was also tasked with combating groups of freed slaves working or fighting alongside the British. He received an order from the Governor of South Carolina to execute any blacks suspected of carrying provisions or gathering intelligence for the enemy "agreeable to the laws of this State.
In April they took Fort Watson and in May they captured Fort Motte , and succeeded in breaking communications between the British posts in the Carolinas. For this action he received the thanks of the Continental Congress. In January , he was elected to a new State Assembly at Jacksonborough and left his troops to take up his seat.
In August he left his brigade and returned to his plantation. In , the British Parliament suspended offensive operations in America, and in December , the British withdrew their garrison from Charleston. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Paris. Marion returned to his plantation to find it had been burnt during the fighting.
His slaves had run away to fight for the British and had later been evacuated from Charleston. He borrowed money to purchase slaves for his plantation. After the war, Marion married his cousin, Mary Esther Videau. Marion served several terms in the South Carolina State Senate. The public memory of Marion has been shaped in large part by the first biography about him, The Life of General Francis Marion  written by M. In the novel Horse-Shoe Robinson by John Pendleton Kennedy , a historical romance set against the background of the Southern campaigns in the American Revolution, Marion appears and interacts with the fictional characters.
In the book, he is depicted as decisive, enterprising, and valiant. It starred Leslie Nielsen as Marion, and Nielsen was also one of the singers of the theme song.
The series depicted Mary Videau who in the series has no familial relationship with Marion secretly acting as an informant for Marion on British movements and Marion's nephew Gabriel Marion being killed by Loyalists, causing Marion to seek revenge on those responsible.
Marion was one of the influences for the main character of Benjamin Martin in the movie The Patriot , which, according to Crawford, "exaggerated the Swamp Fox legend for a whole new generation.
Around the time of the film's release, comments in the British press challenged the American notion of Marion as a hero. In the Evening Standard , the British author Neil Norman called him "a thoroughly unpleasant dude who was, basically, a terrorist. Concurrently, the British historian Christopher Hibbert described Marion as "very active in the persecution of the Cherokee Indians and not at all the sort of chap who should be celebrated as a hero. The truth is that people like Marion committed atrocities as bad, if not worse, than those perpetrated by the British.
In a commentary published in the National Review , the conservative talk radio host Michael Graham rejected criticisms like Hibbert's as an attempt to rewrite history:. Graham also referred to what he describes as "the unchallenged work of South Carolina's premier historian Dr. Walter Edgar , who pointed out in his 'South Carolina: A History' that Marion's partisans were "a ragged band of both black and white volunteers.
Referring to the British officers as well as Marion, Bicheno wrote that "they all tortured prisoners, hanged fence-sitters, abused parole and flags of truce, and shot their own men when they failed to live up to the harsh standards they set. Francis Marion was a man of his times: he owned slaves, and he fought in a brutal campaign against the Cherokee Indians.
While not noble by today's standards, Marion's experience in the French and Indian War prepared him for more admirable service. The city features a statue of General Marion in the town square, and has a museum which includes many artifacts related to Francis Marion; the Marion High School mascot is the Swamp Fox.
In Washington, D. The marionberry is named after the county in Oregon and so derives its name from him. The picture, displayed at the Amon Carter Museum , depicts Marion sitting on a horse and talking with a subordinate on the back row of a small boat, Marion being second from the left. The bill died in the Senate and was reintroduced in January The bill was packaged into the omnibus Consolidated Natural Resources Act of , which passed both houses and was enacted in May The U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Frances Marion. American revolutionary war officer. Belle Isle Plantation Cemetery St.
Stephen, South Carolina. Further information: Siege of Savannah. Main article: Siege of Charleston. Main article: Battle of Eutaw Springs. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of places named for Francis Marion. Retrieved May 23, The Road to Guilford Courthouse. ISBN Berkeley County Government. Archived from the original on October 7, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved March 7, The New York Times. Knock Mel all you want, but leave Francis alone. Retrieved July 16, US House of Representatives. Retrieved April 8, Tough luck".
Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 6, American folklore. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. February 27, aged c. Great Britain United States. Lieutenant Colonel Brigadier General.