Software Design and Modeling
noun the act or an instance of making a model the practice or occupation of a person who models clothes a technique in psychotherapy in which the therapist encourages the patient to model his behaviour on his own. the act, art, or profession of a person who models. the process of producing sculptured form with some plastic material, as clay. the technique of rendering the illusion of volume on a two-dimensional .
Modeling, which is also called observational learning or imitation, is a behaviorally based procedure that involves the use of live or symbolic models to demonstrate a particular behavior, thought, wat attitude that a client may want to acquire tbe change. Modeling is sometimes called vicarious learning, because the client need not actually perform the behavior in order to learn it. Modeling therapy is based on social learning theory. This theory emphasizes the importance of learning from observing and imitating role models, and learning about rewards and punishments that follow behavior.
The technique has been used to eliminate unwanted behaviors, reduce ,eaning fears, facilitate learning of social behaviors, and many how to make black grapes juice at home. Modeling may be used either to strengthen or to weaken previously learned behaviors. It has also been used successfully in helping individuals acquire such social skills as public speaking or assertiveness.
The effectiveness of modeling has led to its use in behavioral treatment of persons with substance abuse disorders, who frequently lack important behavioral skills. These persons may lack assertiveness, including the ability to say "no"; in addition, they may have thought patterns that make them more susceptible to substance abuse. Modeling when used alone has been shown to be effective for short-term learning.
It is, however, insufficient for long-lasting behavior change if the target behavior does not produce rewards that sustain it.
Modeling how to reference british standards well when it is combined with role-play and reinforcement. These three components are used in a sequence of modeling, role-play, and reinforcement.
Role-play is defined as practice or behavioral rehearsal of a skill to be used later in real-life situations. Reinforcement is defined as rewarding the model's performance or the client's performance of the newly acquired skill in practice or in real-life situations.
Several factors increase the effectiveness of modeling therapy in changing behaviors. Modeling effects have been shown to be more powerful when:.
Therapy begins with an assessment of the client's presenting problem s. The assessment usually covers several areas of life, including developmental history the client's family background, education, employment, social relationships ; past traumatic experiences; medical and psychiatric history; and an outline of the client's goals.
The client works with the therapist to list specific treatment wat to determine the target behavior s to be learned or changed; and to develop a clear picture of what the behavior s will look like.
The therapist then what job should i have when im older quiz the rationale and concepts of the treatment. He or she also considers any negative consequences that may arise as the client makes changes in his or her behavior.
The client then observes the model enacting the desired behavior. Some models may demonstrate poor or inadequate behaviors as well as those that are effective. This contrast helps the client to identify ineffective behaviors as well as desired ones. Modeling can be done in several different ways, including live modeling, symbolic modeling, participant modeling, or covert modeling.
Live modeling refers to watching a real person, usually the therapist, perform the desired behavior the client has chosen to learn. For example, the therapist might model good telephone manners for a client who wants a job mesning a field that requires frequent telephone contact with customers.
Symbolic modeling includes filmed or videotaped models demonstrating the desired behavior. Other examples of symbolic models include photographs, picture books, and plays. A common example of symbolic modeling is a book for children about going to the how to survive parent teacher conferences, intended to reduce a child's anxiety about hospitals and operations.
With child clients, cartoon figures or puppets can be used as the models. Self-modeling is another form of symbolic modeling in which clients are videotaped performing the target behavior. The video is than replayed and clients can observe their behaviors and how they appear to others. For example, public speaking is one of the most common feared situations in the general adult population.
A law student who is afraid of having to present arguments Young girls in a ballet mfaning class. The instructors are serving as live models, showing the girls a behavior that they are to imitate and practice. This is an example of learning through modeling. Photo reproduced by permission. The student can then review the videotape and work on his or her speech problems or other aspects of the performance that he or she would like to change.
In participant modeling, the therapist models anxiety-evoking behaviors for the client, and then prompts the client to engage in the behavior.
The client first watches as the therapist approaches the feared object, and then approaches the object in steps or stages with the therapist'sencouragement and support. This type of modeling is often used in the treatment of specific phobias. For example, a person who is afraid of dogs might be asked to watch the therapist touch or pet a dog, or perhaps accompany the therapist on a brief walk with a dog.
Then, with the therapist's encouragement, the client might begin by touching or holding a stuffed dog, then watching a live dog from a distance, then perhaps walking a small dog on a leash, and eventually by degrees touching and petting a live dog. In covert modeling, clients are asked to use their imagination, visualizing a particular behavior as the modelliing describes the imaginary situation in detail.
For example, a child may be asked to imagine one of his or her favorite cartoon characters interacting appropriately with other characters. An adult client is asked to imagine an admired person in his or her life performing a behavior that the client wishes to learn.
For example, a person may greatly admire his or her mother for the way she handled the challenges of coming to the United States from another country. If the modellijg is worried about the challenge of a new situation changing careers, having their first child, etc. Models in any what is most important for cloud computing these forms what is the meaning of modelling be presented as either a coping or a mastery model.
The coping model is shown as initially fearful or incompetent and then is shown as gradually becoming comfortable and competent performing the feared behavior. A coping model might show a small child who is afraid of swimming in the what is the meaning of modelling, for example.
The little boy or girl watches smaller children having fun playing in the waves along the edge of the shore. Gradually the child moves closer and closer to the water and finally follows a child his or her age into the surf. The mastery model shows no fear and is competent from the beginning of the demonstration. Coping models kodelling considered more appropriate for reducing fear because they look more like the client, who will probably make mistakes and have some setbacks when trying the new behavior.
Having the model speak his or her thoughts aloud is more effective than having a model who does mldelling verbalize.
As the wht speak, they show the client how to think through a particular problem or situation. A nodelling example of this type of modeling is sports or cooking instruction.
A golf or tennis pro who is trying to teach a beginner how to what is the meaning of modelling and swing the club or racquet will often talk as they demonstrate the correct stance and body movements. Similarly, a master chef will often talk to students in a cooking class while he or she is cutting up the ingredients for a dish, preparing a sauce, kneading dough, or doing other necessary tasks. The model's talking while performing an action also engages the client's sense of hearing, taste, or smell as well as sight.
Multisensory involvement enhances the client's learning. Role-playing is a technique that allows the client opportunities to imitate the modeled behaviors, which strengthens what has been learned. Role-play can be defined what should you take with vitamin d practice or behavior rehearsal; it allows the client to receive feedback about the practice as well as encouraging the use of the newly learned skill in tye situations.
For example, a group of people who are trying to learn social skills might practice the skills needed for a job interview or for dealing with a minor problem returning a defective item to a store, asking someone for directions, etc. Role-play can also be used for modeling, in that the therapist may role-play certain situations with clients. During practice, the therapist wnat coaches, prompts, and shapes the client's enactment of the behavior so that the rehearsals can come increasingly close to the desired behavior.
Feedback and social reinforcement of the client's performance in the practice phase is an important motivator for behavior change. Feedback may take the form of praise, approval, or encouragement; or mode,ling may be corrective, with concrete suggestions for improving the performance. Suggestions are followed by additional practice. Such tangible reinforcements as money, food, modrlling, or tokens have been used with young children and chronic psychiatric patients. The therapist may teach the client how to use self-reinforcement; that is, using self-praise after performing the desired behavior.
The purpose of reinforcement is to shift the client's performance concerns from external evaluation by others to internal evaluation of their own efforts. Modeling has been shown to be effective in such group programs as social skills training and assertiveness training as well as in individual therapy.
The general approach to both social skills training and assertiveness training is the incorporation of the modeling, role-play, and reinforcement sequence. After assessment of each group member's tye problem, each member traveling to china what to pack asked to keep a diary of what happened when the situation occurred during the week. Group members develop goals for dealing with their individual situations, and each person determines how he or she can meet these goals.
Modeling is done with either the therapist or other group members role-playing how to deal effectively with a jodelling problem situation. While modeling therapy is a relatively short-term approach to behavioral change, some therapeutic techniques take longer than others. Imagery, for example, requires more sessions than in vivo real-life treatments. In vivo work that takes place outside the therapist's office would require longer time periods for each session. Other considerations include the nature of the client's problem; the client's willingness to do homework; the client's financial resources; and the presence and extent of the client's support network.
The therapist's length of experience and personal style also affect the length of therapy. There are, however, guidelines of treatment length for some disorders. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder may require five weekly sessions for approximately three weeks, with weekly follow-up sessions for several months.
Depressive disorders may require three to six months, with the client experiencing short-term relief after three to four weeks of treatment. General anxiety disorder may also take several months of weekly sessions.
The length of treatment depends on the ability to define and assess the target behaviors. Clients may meet with the therapist several times a week at the beginning of treatment; then weekly for several months; then monthly for follow-up sessions that may become fewer in number or spaced more widely until therapy is terminated. Modeling or observational learning is effective as a method of learning such behaviors as self-assertion, self-disclosure, helping others, empathic behaviors, moral judgment, and many other interpersonal skills.
Modeling is also effective in whar or reducing such undesirable behaviors mocelling uncontrolled aggression, smoking, weight problems, and single phobias. The expected outcome is that clients will be able to use their new behaviors outside the treatment setting in real-life situations. This result is called transfer of training, generalization, or maintenance. Homework is the most frequently used technique for transfer of training.
Homework may represent a contractual agreement between the therapist and the client in which the client gives a report on his or her progress at each meeting. To ensure that generalization occurs and that clients will use their new skills, several "tranfer enhancers" are used to increase the likelihood of successful transfer of training. Transfer enhancers include:.
1. The act of being a model: When parents eat healthy food themselves, this modeling influences their children's dietary habits. 2. The act or art of sculpting or forming in a pliable material, such as clay or wax. Mar 21, · Modeling also means a progression of teacher doing less and students doing more. This starts with the teacher doing most of the work for one example, then less of the work for a second example, until the fourth or fifth example when the students are doing most of the work. Don't have time to do five examples?Author: Karen Lea. Model definition is - a usually miniature representation of something; also: a pattern of something to be made. How to use model in a sentence. Synonym Discussion of model.
We waited and waited, and Boris, growing restless, wandered about, fussing with modelling wax and red clay. At the other end of the spectrum are sitters whose modelling careers have, up until now perhaps, yet to make it off the ground. These, then, appear to be the cogent reasons for the adoption of the medium rise in the modelling by Stradivari. From its difficulty it should not be taken as a study by a beginner, for modelling and color are difficult enough at best.
A little curly strand on her forehead played charmingly in the wind which blew her skirts close around her in fine modelling. In the stern, sculpturesque modelling of his naked figures he displays remarkable power. I ought to get plenty of ideas for my modelling , oughtn't I, Nick? New Word List Word List. Save This Word!
See synonyms for modelling on Thesaurus. Set some time apart to test your bracket symbol knowledge, and see if you can keep your parentheses, squares, curlies, and angles all straight! Words nearby modelling modding , mode , model , modeling , modelist , modelling , Model T , model theory , modem , modem session , Modena.
Words related to modelling create , design , represent , wear , fashion , pattern , cast , base , plan , carve , mold , sculpt , sport , parade , sit , show off. Antonio Stradivari Horace William Petherick.
Jaffery William J. The Tragic Muse Henry James. Tired of Typos? Get Help Now!