Theatre & Drama Techniques in the Primary Curriculum of Barbados
Mar 25, · Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. A primary source (also called original source) is a document, recording, artifact, or other source of information that was created at the time under study, usually by a source with Author: Jill Conte. May 25, · Theatre in the Middle Ages. May 25, by Simon Newman. Theatre in the Middle ages covered a wide variety of genres and subject matter. Some of the most popular genres of plays in the Middle Ages include morality plays, farces, masques and drama. Medieval drama began with religious and moral themed plays.
What are Primary Sources? Primary sources enable the researcher to get as close as possible to the truth of what actually happened during an historical event or time period. Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. A primary source also called original source is a document, recording, artifact, or other source of information that was subuect at the time under study, usually by a source with direct personal knowledge of the events being described.
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Theatre & Drama Techniques in the Primary Curriculum of Barbados. Download. The opportunity to apply that which was learnt and hence gain implicit knowledge on the subject matter is one such benefit which is similar in principle to that of college internships. This application of theoretical knowledge in relevant situations (also known as. 2 days ago · Subject matter definition: The subject matter of something such as a book, lecture, film, or painting is the thing | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examplesMissing: theatre.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free DOC. Download Free PDF. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. These statistics are shown in Appendix 1. Furthermore, the average scores in English and Mathematics in the year are less than those recorded in Since , students were given the option to either defer the sitting of the examination or to take it early, that is, before eleven years of 1 Barbados, Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and Culture, White Paper on Education Reform: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century Barbados: n.
Hinkson 4 age. Statistics have also shown that the number of early takers has decreased by fifty percent since that time, while the number of deferrals has increased by seventy-five percent. When compared against the total number of early takers, the deferrals are over two thousand percent more.
These figures therefore infer that there has been little evidence of success in the efforts to reform the educational system. This could be attributed to the fact that Drama-in-Education and Theatre-in-Education were neither known nor practised in Barbados at that time.
Although, in some Secondary Schools, Drama is presently taught as an independent subject, the use of Drama as an educative tool for teaching other subjects at both the Primary and Secondary levels is not maximised.
Hinkson 6 The major difficulty encountered in conducting this study was the inadequate documentation of relevant information. Furthermore, there were few instances where Drama- and Theatre-in-Education were being used specifically in Caribbean Primary schools.
Nonetheless, case studies of relevant projects were conducted and applicable concepts applied to the proposals made in this paper. With reference to information on the Primary Education system and implementations toward educational reform in Barbados, there were again limitations in sourcing relevant published documentation.
It was therefore necessary to source persons who were able to provide information which would be pertinent to the aims of the project. In both instances, relevant literature will be presented along with characteristics of the respective theories. Basic components of the various programmes will be outlined and, where possible, the strengths, weaknesses and challenges of the programmes will be identified.
Hinkson 7 Chapter 2 — 21st Century Educational Theory 2. Howard Gardner, Professor in Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, first published his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, hereafter called the MI theory, in out of the recognition that there are notable inaccuracies in the traditional means of measuring intelligence, particularly the Intelligence Quotient IQ test.
He disagreed with the notion that any form of intelligence could be measured by attaching a numerical value to it and further noted that intelligence exists in spheres other than those which are acknowledged by the test — Mathematics and English. Consequently, he went on to review other studies of intelligence and used his background in neurobiology to support his hypothesis. The theory is one which has challenged traditional methods of teaching and has placed emphasis on the student as the focal point of the classroom.
Basic-Perseus: NY, xvi 4 Gardner xiii. However, he has identified at least eight intelligences and a possible ninth. They are as follows: 1. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 2. Linguistic Intelligence 3. Musical Intelligence 4.
Spatial Intelligence 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence 6. Interpersonal Intelligences 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence 8. Naturalist Intelligence 9. He extends the theory by suggesting activities which could be incorporated into the curriculum so as to cater to the various intelligences.
Hinkson 9 child. As a result, teachers who find difficulty in teaching students according to traditional Intelligences Logical-Mathematical and Linguistic are afforded a means by which effective learning can take place through the other six. Louis, considers this to be a result of two predominant elements of the MI theory: 1. The theory is child-centred in nature. The MI theory therefore affords educators the benefit of using a method by which more children are provided with the opportunity to succeed according to their own learning abilities.
The role of the teacher is redefined. Teachers no longer have to rely solely on text books, but instead are given the chance to be more creative in devising lesson plans using alternative strategies. As a result, the classroom experience is more fun for the students and more fulfilling for the teacher while still achieving the goal of education.
In addition, the act of teaching becomes a more collaborative activity since educators can work together in developing effective curricula which integrate the use of the Intelligences. However, while these are essential to function effectively in society, the other six intelligences may allow for a better-rounded individual.
Hinkson 11 have skills which are enhanced in non-traditional intelligences such as art, drama and music. According to Dee Dickinson, CEO of New Horizons for Learning, these non- traditional skills can be utilised in the classroom as an avenue through which the students can learn the more traditional skills. It is in this way that the eight intelligences, though independent of each other, are closely related.
Drama provides social interaction, linguistic expression, spatial experiences, bodily- kinesthetic expression, musical opportunities, emotional expression, and much more… Students could read a book, and then dramatize it. They could learn about history, and dramatize it.
They could learn scientific concepts and act them out. The following chapter will examine the concept of arts in education. Hinkson 12 Chapter 3 — Educative Theatre Theories 3. As such, the proposals are geared toward ensuring that education surpasses the traditional goal of securing employment, but rather addresses the attitudes of the students toward change while promoting critical, creative and innovative thinkers.
The White Paper further notes that, in order to achieve these tasks, Early Childhood Education is of crucial importance to the development of the child. It also highlights the significance of play in the classroom and stresses on the necessity for students to actively participate in their own learning experiences. This chapter will present discourses on literature which is relevant to the theories and will outline characteristics of both DIE and TIE.
Hinkson 13 3. In the DIE technique, there is no separation between the actor and the audience. Rather, students assume the double role of participant and observer, while the teacher facilitates the exercise and may, at times, use the teacher-in-role technique where the teacher facilitates the learning process by assuming a role within the drama.
Students thereby play a more active role and assume a greater responsibility for their own learning. The use of these dramatic techniques, which are interactive in nature, therefore encourages learning and the discovery of new subjects while allowing for the total development of those participating in the exercise See Appendix 2 for examples of DIE activities.
Students-in-role are afforded advantages which are often not made available in the traditional classroom. The opportunity to apply that which was learnt and hence gain implicit knowledge on the subject matter is one such benefit which is similar in principle to that of college internships.
In addition, 14 Tony Jackson ed. Hinkson 14 the creation of real-life situations in the DIE classroom permits students to learn practically within an academic environment.
This also promotes problem-solving skills across disciplines so that students are able to apply the necessary skills to solve different situations. Because the DIE exercise is not assessed in the traditional academic manner, there is a greater motivation for students to engage in learning since their goal surpasses that of passing examinations as they develop a genuine interest in the subject matter.
In the DIE classroom, it may not always be possible to produce true replicas of a particular situation, for instance, a Concentration Camp in a history lesson based on World War II. Furthermore, when assigning roles to students, the teacher must be cognizant of the capabilities of the individual student so that the tasks that are assigned to each role are appropriate for the aptitude of that student, hence allowing for significant input from each participant.
It is, however, important to note that DIE is a student-centred approach to learning rather than the traditional teacher- centred approach.
Nevertheless, DIE techniques vary considerably depending on the subject matter and the competence of the facilitator in using the different methods. Nonetheless, the ideal DIE classroom should adopt a holistic approach to learning so that multiple cross-curricular skills are developed while also improving the necessary social, psychological and emotional skills. Gavin Bolton further describes the function of the teacher-in-role as a participant within the drama who is able to work ahead of the other participants in order to ensure that the objectives are realised.
He has identified an important and integral aspect of the DIE session as being reflection on both the experience and knowledge which are gained during the activities See Appendix 3.
He states that it is within the process of reflection that the desired change in understanding is achieved. Much research is therefore required in the planning process, as well as ingenuity in constructing the workshop.
In addition, the TIE team must have an awareness of theatrical and dramatic techniques. Jackson states that the most important rationale behind creating a TIE workshop should be: …the desire to engage and educate students, by presenting dramatic material that directly relates to their concerns and needs… the urge to impart information that stimulates critical thinking and transmits a creative and cathartic experience through the dynamics of drama and theatre.
The TIE production is normally characterised by a prepared or improvised performance which is followed by active audience participation, often in the form of interactive workshops which are facilitated by the actor-teachers. TIE is not solely concerned with imparting factual knowledge, but rather uses such knowledge to support and encourage the exploration of relevant issues by the participants.
Such an activity allows the participants to take responsibility for their actions and examine possible outcomes of various situations while opening discussion of their responses to a range of issues. Other TIE workshop techniques include, but are not limited to, hotseating; angels and demons; start and stop; photographs; sculptures; monologues; and challenges.
See Appendix 4 for further details. Redington also outlines what she considers to be the educational elements which are evident in TIE — child centeredness; the use of play; learning by doing; project teaching; drama in education; problem solving; language development; and the use of new teaching methods such as games and simulation.
Redington, Can Theatre Teach? Perganon: Oxford Eng, 21 Redington 7. Hinkson 19 the Intelligences, hence creating the child-centred environment in the classroom as recommended and outlined in the Barbados White Paper. Both DIE and TIE could be incorporated into the curriculum to cater to the Multiple Intelligences, thereby providing young people with the necessary tools to meet the challenges of adulthood. Cases were specifically chosen so that relevant characteristics could be extracted with the aim of proposing recommendations for creating an Arts-In-Education model for the Barbados Primary School curriculum.
In as much as possible, a brief history will be given on the development of the various programmes, followed by a description of the implementation and finally the strengths, weaknesses and challenges encountered therein. The project attempts to restructure the curriculum in such a way that its features and methodologies are child-centred while simultaneously promoting cross-curricular activities.